The complexion of an individual is essentially a biological characteristic. The variation of the tone of the complexion is attributed to protein molecules called melanin. Melanocytes introduce melanin granules known as melanosomes into the cells of the skin present in the human epidermis.
After they are inserted into the skin cells, the melanosomes accumulate on top of the nucleus of the recipient cells and work to protect the DNA from mutation due to the ionizing radiation of the sun. The human body has a propensity to protect itself from harmful environments. Since the epidermis of the human body is very delicate and sensitive, it instantly responds to any consequences by external elements. Generally, people whose predecessors lived close to the Equator for prolonged periods have additionally active melanocytes. As a result, their skin contains larger amounts of melanin.
The presence of large amounts of melanin in the skin cells makes one's complexion very dark and, at the same time, shields them against high exposure to the sun's ultra-violet rays. However, to a certain extent, this is also subject to the country where one is residing. On the other hand, people residing closer to the two poles of the Earth need comparatively less protection from the sun's ionizing radiation. As a result, their complexion is generally much fairer.
Melanin can be defined as the pigment present in the skin cells that determines the complexion of a person. However, not everyone's skin cells enclose melanin. This is the main reason why albinos do not have a skin complexion. They lack melanin in their skin cells. However, it is possible that people belonging to the same race having somewhat different complexions.
Although there are various factors that influence the skin complexion, most of the problems related to this are attributed to the sun. The ultra-violet (UV) rays of the sun can obliterate the cells present in our skin, thereby causing various skin-related problems. Some other factors affecting skin complexion are discussed below:
Lifestyle habits: Excessive consumption of alcohol and smoking have a negative effect on the complexion of our skin. Taking an unbalanced diet and not drinking sufficient water is harmful for the health of the skin.
Emotional stress: When we are exhausted or under stress, our body releases various enzymes. Such enzymes can make the appearance of the skin dull and lead to various conditions like irregular pigmentation.
Environment: People living in highly polluted areas are very vulnerable to skin damages. Therefore, it is essential to keep the environment clean not only for our overall health, but also the health of the skin.
There are various types of skin complexion, including Type I (pale), Type II and III (light), Type IV and V (tan) and Type VI (dark). A brief discussion regarding these different types of skin complexions is below.
Type I (Pale): People having this type of skin complexion have the pales among all types of human skin complexions. People with Type I skin complexion have an extremely fair skin, which has a tendency to freckles. This variety of skin is extremely at risk of having sunburns when they are exposed to the direct rays of the sun for prolonged periods. This type of skin is said to contain fewer melanin in the cells.
Type II and III (Light): People having this particular kind of skin tone have a light complexion. This type of skin complexion may be somewhat tanned when people expose themselves to direct sunlight. Naturally, Type III skin complexion is very close to the olive shade and is capable of tanning more easily compared to Type II skin complexion. Moreover, this skin type is more prone to burning when exposed to direct sunlight for extended periods.
Type IV and V (Tan): People having Type IV and Type V types of skin complexions are considered to have natural tan tones. These types of skin tones tan very easily when people expose themselves to direct sunlight. People with Type IV skin tone actually have a brownish complexion and generally this type of skin is not inclined to suffer from sunburns. On the other hand, people with Type V skin tone have a somewhat dark complexion and this skin practically does not suffer from sunburn.
Type VI (Dark): The skin cells of people with Type VI skin tone contain the maximum quantity of melanin. In conversational terms, this kind of skin is described as black skin. In fact, Type VI skin tone almost never suffers from sunburns. As this type of skin tone contains large amounts of melanin, much more than the other types of skin tones, it becomes tanned very easily.