Hybrid Perpetual Roses
As a result of a fusion between the Bourbons and, it would seem, any other parent
that came along, a race of roses appeared which, following initial confusion,
became known as Hybrid Perpetuals. They were accepted as a new group some
time in the 1820s and many cultivars were later to fill catalogues. Their sheer
numbers and very hybridity, however, proved to be the downfall of many, and only
the best survived.
The hybrid perpetuals share the hybrid teas' essential flaw: in their pursuit
of large, glamorous flowers and repeat bloom, the breeders of the hybrid
perpetuals too often ignored the quality of their creations as garden shrubs.
Still, among the 3,000-odd types of hybrid perpetual roses release onto the
market in the last century, some are not only beautiful when in bloom but also
make healthy, hardy, shapely shrubs.
Hybrid perpetual roses bloom heavily in the spring and again in the fall,
with just a trickle of flowers during the intervening months. The flowers are
large, ranging from 3 to 5 in (7.6 to 12.7 cm) in diameter, with a few cultivars
bearing giant flowers 6 - 7 in (15.2 to 17.8 cm) across. The hybrid perpetual
flowers are also full and fragrant, and at their best these flowers are among
the most spectacular of any roses. Their color ranges from white to pink, rose,
carmine, and scarlet; there are no true yellows or oranges in this class.
Cold hardy; these roses grow well far south. They are prone to fungal
diseases where the summers are very hot.
- 'Baroness Rothschild' Roses (Introduced - 1868)
- These stiff, erect plants are graced with large,
fully double (40 petals), cupped, very fragrant 3- to 4-inch
flowers of soft rose-pink overlaid with white. They bloom singly or
in small clusters. Flowers are darker pink toward the center and
appear profusely in spring and again in fall on 4- to 5-foot plants.
- 'Baronne Prévost' Roses (Introduced - 1842)
- Though sometimes troubled by blackspot and mildew,
'Baronne Prévost' is possibly the most disease resistant of the hybrid
perpetuals. For this reason, it is one of the few that flourish in the
humid Southeast. Because this rose is also notably cold tolerant, it
is a good choice for areas such as the lower Northeast and
Mid-Atlantic states, where a hard winter may be followed by a summer
of heat and humidity, and for southern Ontario.
Its blossoms are luxurious: broad, flattened, pink rosettes with a
button eye at the center. While not quite as big as those of 'Paul
Neyron', the blossoms of 'Baronne Prevost' are borne more
prolifically. This old-time aristocrat flowers heavily in late spring or early
summer, then sporadically throughout the summer, with a heavier
repeat in autumn. This is a tough shrub, one that works well in a
mixed border of flowers and shrubs.
- 'Candeur Lyonnaise' Roses (Introduced - 1914)
- 'Candeur Lyonnaise' produces a continuous
succession of flowers from early spring until the first hard
frost. Its buds are long and pointed, opening to very large
double flowers that are 5 inches across. Blooms are white,
although they sometimes take on a pale yellow tint, and the
petals are delicately fringed.
The plants themselves are vigorous, stately, upright, and
of moderate height. Their extended flowering season
makes this an excellent shrub for nearly any garden and a
good source of cut flowers.
- 'Ferdinand Pichard' Roses (Introduced - 1921)
- The cupped double blooms of 'Ferdinand Pichard' rose are
fragrant and colorful. Ranging from 2 1/2 to 4 inches across,
each flower bears pink petals splashed with white or
crimson stripes, and as the blossom ages its pink fades to
white and the crimson to purple. Flower clusters appear in
abundance in early summer and again in the fall with
sporadic blooms in between. Foliage is yellowish green, and
canes are nearly thornless.
This rose has an upright, compact habit and is ideally suited to beds. This rose
does especially well with regular fertilizing and copious watering and should be
pruned heavily in winter. While fairly resistant to mildew, this rose is susceptible
to black spot.
- 'Frau Karl Druschki' Roses (Introduced - 1901)
- This rose produces a great abundance of double
blossoms from high-centered buds in early summer and
repeats the show in fall. The elegant white flower is 4 to
4 1/2 inches across with 30 to 35 rolled petals that display
a touch of lemon yellow at their base. Canes are nearly
smooth, supporting leathery, coarse, light green foliage.
The plant is vigorous and erect, with stout branches and
long, strong stems. The color and form of its flower makes it
useful in combination with other roses, both in beds and
in indoor arrangements. Buds are reluctant to open in damp
weather, and leaves are susceptible to mildew.
- 'Général Jacqueminot' Roses (Introduced - 1853)
- Long cutting stems made this an early florist's rose.
Blooms are 2 1/2 to 4 inches across, cupped, bright, clear red, and
extremely fragrant. They have 25 to 30 petals, whose reverse
side is overtoned in white. Often considered the prototype of the
hybrid perpetual class, this variety blooms repeatedly on bushy;
4- to 5-foot plants with rich green foliage. Rose growers have
dubbed this variety "General Jack."
- 'Henry Nevard' Roses (Introduced - 1924)
- Double flowers of crimson to scarlet have 30 petals and are cupped, 4
inches or more across, and very fragrant. They appear throughout
the summer on bushy; 4- to 5-foot plants with dark green,
leathery leaves. Plants are susceptible to mildew.
- 'Mabel Morrison' Roses (Introduced - 1878)
- The hybrid perpetuals tend to be tall and ungainly shrubs, but
this relatively compact cultivar with its healthy, handsome
foliage is a happy exception. 'Mabel Morrison' is not a common
rose, but it is one that deserves to be better known. Its large cupped
blossoms are extraordinary; they look almost like outsize
lilies. Opening a pale blush pink, the flowers then fade to a pure
white throughout most of the season, though fall may turn them a
deeper tinge of pink. Pleasantly perfumed, these blossoms make
wonderful cut flowers. 'Mabel Morrison' also makes a good
addition to a mixed border of flowers and shrubs, especially since it
flourishes in a variety of soils.
- 'Marchesa Boccella' Roses (Introduced - 1842)
- 'Marchesa Boccella' (also known as 'Jacques Cartier')
produces large, full flowers in repeat flushes throughout
the growing season. Each very double bloom is
delicate pink with blush edges. Borne in tight clusters on
short, stiff stems, they are very fragrant. The petals are
more numerous but smaller than those of most hybrid
perpetuals. Foliage is dense and bright green.
One of the finest of the class, this rose is a robust grower
with a medium to tall erect form and is somewhat
spreading. Its recurring flowering habit and lush foliage are
suited to large beds and borders.
- 'Marchioness of Londonderry' Roses (Introduced - 1893)
- The huge, fragrant flowers of 'Marchioness of Londonderry'
are ivory white with a pale pink to rose pink blush.
They open from high-centered buds to cup-shaped,
cabbagy double blossoms 4 to 5 inches across. Though
not continuous bloomers, the plants produce a fine floral
display in spring and fall. Foliage is leathery; canes are
This hybrid perpetual is a very vigorous grower. The
plants have a sturdy, upright habit and are suitable for use
in large beds and borders. They can also be trained to a
fence or trellis.
- 'Mrs. John Laing' Roses (Introduced - 1887)
- Low growing for a hybrid perpetual, this 3- to 4-foot variety
has soft pink flowers that are strongly fragrant. Blooms are 3 1/2 to
4 inches across, have 45 petals, and bloom recurrently during the summer.
- 'Paul Neyron' Roses (Introduced - 1869)
- 'Paul Neyron' is a giant among roses: it bears what may be the
largest flowers of any rose in cultivation. The fragrant, rich
pink, tousled blooms may measure 7 in (18cm) across, and they are
exhibited proudly atop strong, upright canes. Even the leaves of
this rose, which are large, glossy green, and bold, are remarkable.
This vigorous shrub needs room in which to flex its muscles.
'Paul Neyron' makes a strong statement at the back of a mixed
border of flowers and shrubs and works well as a flowering hedge.
- 'Reine des Violettes' Roses (Introduced - 1860)
- The 3-inch flowers of this hybrid perpetual are
very double, opening rosy purple and fading to violet. The
undersides of the petals are lighter and silkier than the
velvety upper surfaces. Petals are quartered and surround a
button eye. The blossoms are borne singly or in small
clusters and bear a strong, complex fragrance. Flowers fade
quickly after they have fully matured. Foliage is sparse
and silvery green; canes are nearly smooth.
This bushy plant grows tall and spreads wide; hard pruning is necessary to
maintain a compact habit. The long, flexible canes can be trained to climb. The
rose is particularly attractive grown on walls. This rose requires rich soil to perform
at its best.
- 'Roger Lambelin' Roses (Introduced - 1890)
- The value of 'Roger Lambelin' is in the unique color pattern
of its repeating double flowers: petals are bright crimson
edged and streaked with white, so that blooms appear
to be wearing petticoats. As they age, the blooms fade
to maroon. Each flower has about 30 fringed,
velvety-textured petals. They are extremely fragrant.
This vigorous hybrid perpetual has a full, bushy habit.
It is finicky, though, requiring very good soil, and is
susceptible to both black spot and mildew. 'Baron Girod de
l'Ain', a similar rose in this class, has flowers that are a
little less richly colored but is a more reliable performer.