Bacteria part 2

Binary fission

The process of bacterial reproduction or duplication wherein the cell of a bacterium produces a second copy of its DNA and also increases the remaining constituents of its cell two-fold prior to splitting into two more or less similar offspring cells by means of forming a wall (septum) flanked by the halves is known as binary fission. In fact, this happens to be the easiest as well as most frequent method of reproduction of the majority of prokaryotes having a solitary cell. Bacteria as well as mycolasmas are two such prokaryotes. The mitosis (cell division) that occurs in the case of eukaryotic (organisms having regular cell structure) cells may also be referred to as a type of binary fission where the division is symmetrical. Only in exceptional cases, such as in Caulobacter species, binary fission is not symmetrical. As a result of such asymmetrical cell division, one of the two progeny cells appears as well as acts in a significantly different manner from its parent cell. Specific cyanobacteria species go through recurring binary fission below a common capsule or sheath with a view to prevent the progeny from separating and also ensure that they look like a filament. This means of cell division is called multiple fission.

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An organelle or a dedicated part of any cell that functions in the form of the location for photosynthesis in the eukaryotic cells, for instance, those of the green plants and algae, is made up of two membranes. The inner surface of this double membrane is related to vesicles containing chlorophyll, similar to the thylakoids present in the cyanobacteria. In effect, a number of scientists hypothesize that chloroplasts developed from endosymbionts of cyanobacteria. This theory is strengthened by the existence of minute, spherical molecules of DNA that provide the organelle with some amount of autonomy, however, not total freedom, from being controlled by the nucleus.

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Structures akin to filaments that overhang a cell and work in the form of a moving organ inside a single-celled creature or found inside cells that are itself mobile (for instance, a sperm) of organisms composed of numerous cells are known as flagella. While the fundamental role remains similar, these structures work in the same way as propellers to facilitate the organism go swimming in liquid surroundings, the flagella present in prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes possess structures that are notably distinct.

The flagellum present in the bacteria is primarily composed of a type of protein known as flagellin. The flagellum has its origin within the cell and an apparatus similar to an electrical motor located at the base powers it. In effect, the number as well as the layout of these flagella is typical for any specific species of bacterium. Some bacteria may possess a solitary flagellum (known as monotrichous), while others may have many flagella. This flagella possibly will be peritrichous (being frequently spread out all over), lophotrichous (occurring in tufts), or amphitrichous (present in polar displays). It is often very difficult to see the flagella as they are extremely thin and never rise like the common filaments. Hence, one has to make use of mordents to view them. The mordents may include tannic acid that spreads over the flagella making them sufficiently broad to make it possible to see them under any common light microscope.

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Mitochondria are partially autonomous organelles that are usually known as the source of power or 'powerhouses' of every cell. In majority of the eukaryotes, mitochondria function in the form of locations for generating energy and respiration. In effect, scientists assume that mitochondrion is an organelle which is a contemporary progeny of prokaryotic endosymbionts present in eularyotic cells. There is some incomplete evidence in this regard - these organelles have their individual DNA, which are under independent control, and ribosomes that look like the ribosome present in prokaryotic cells instead of those in eukaryotic cells. The shape of mitochondria may differ significantly from little packages akin to rods to big divided structures. They are made up of two membranes, wherein the layer on the inner surface is folded up into many cristae enclosing the constituents related to the electron transfer chain. The fluid inside the sac of the mitochondria comprises enzymes pertaining to respiration (also called Krebs cycle), in addition to enzymes pertaining to urea cycle.

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Any typical living creature whose cells do not enclose any element that is bound by membranes is known as a prokaryote. Hence, the organization of the cell of a prokaryote is extremely plain and comprises dissimilar macromolecules that are necessary for undertaking a variety of live processes confined inside a membrane. In fact, the cell component called nucleic acid lies free or exposed in the cells of a prokaryote. They are generally present as a solitary unbroken, spherical DNA molecule having no distinct origin or end. Every prokaryote is a single-celled living creature, such as bacteria, mycolasmas, and rickettsiae.


The constituents of a cell that are related to the conversion of mRNA to DNA within the cytoplasm are known as ribosomes. It comprises RNA complexes as well as proteins and works together with the tRNAs, molecules of energy and constituents associated with the protein synthetic apparatus that converts the mRNA's coding series into polypeptides. Cells of every living being enclose ribosomes, but they differ significantly vis-à-vis their arrangement as well as composition subject to whether they are in any prokaryotic cell or eukaryotic cell. It may be noted that the organelles found in the eukaryotic cells, for instance, the mitochondria as well as the chloroplasts, possess their individual ribosomes that have more resemblance to prokaryotic ribosomes. During the functional or dynamic phase of synthesizing protein, it may be found that many ribosomes are wound all along the extent of mRNA to take the shape of what is known as polyribosome - something that is essential for the proper progression of protein synthesis.

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This bacterial genus has been named vibrio owing to its typical curvy or comma shape when it is separated from its normal environments. It may be noted that vibrio is the sole gram-negative bacteria in its entire family that has been identified to be responsible for some diseases in humans. In fact, the most familiar species belonging to this genus of bacteria actually contributes to the development of cholera. Although this genus of bacteria is a changing anaerobe, it displays a noticeable penchant for conditions where oxygen is present. These microbes have the ability to make use of a range of sugars, counting sucrose, glucose, mannitol and galactose. Vibrios metabolize these sugars to make acid, but do not produce any gas - which means complete fermentation does not occur. Vibrios cut down nitrogen and are known to be potently proteolytic (breaking down different sugars into simpler amalgams). Vibrios have the aptitude to survive tolerably on the exterior of our body, particularly in warm climatic conditions as well as in places close to water bodies, but get easily eliminated when the temperature is high and also due to chemical use. Usually, vibrios have a solitary polar flagellum enabling these bacteria of this genus to be mobile. Some species of vibrios may, however, posses a clump of flagellum, which are present at their poles. It is important to note that the curvy or comma-like shape of vibrios should never be used to identify these organisms, as they generally lose this shape when they go through a series of passages during cultures in laboratories.



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