Leaves, nut, casing, inner bark.
The best conditions for the growth of walnut trees include cavernous well-drained soil and enough of sunlight. However, the trees need to be protected from strong winds, which other wise tend to uproot the vegetation or even rummage the branches. The tree grows well in mildly alkaline heavy soil, but also flourishes in damp soils. Studies have shown that the walnut trees can withstand an annual rainfall in the range of 31 cm to 147 cm and annual temperature fluctuations from 7.0 to 21.1�C and relative pH in the range of 4.5 to 8.2. The latent or dormant walnut plant can endure much cold, so much so that it remains alive even in freezing temperatures up to -27�C without sustaining any damage. However, the young spurs coming out in spring are very sensitive to cold and may be harmed by late frostiness. Following researches, herbalists have developed some late-leafing cultivable varieties of the walnut which are not only capable of avoiding damage from spring frosts, but also yield better quality of timber. In the temperate climes of the globe, different varieties of the walnut tree are often grown for its seeds that are edible. The newer varieties of the cultivable walnut trees begin to yield nuts in five to six years' time and by the time they are seven to eight years old, these trees give off 2.5 tons of nuts for each hectare. On the other hand, walnut trees cultivated in orchards that are having comparatively inferior soil and are not irrigated also produce 1.5 tons to 2.5 tons of seeds every hectare. But when the orchards are cultivated in well cultivated valleys the yield goes up to 6.5 tons to 7.5 tons for each hectare. A totally matured walnut tree can yield approximately 185 kg of nuts, but the average yield per tree is reported to be around 37 kg. The walnut tree grows best in most places in Britain, but they sometimes do not succeed in yielding fully ripened fruits. Even the wood quality is not strong in the cooler and damper climate as the walnut trees favor the continental climate. In England, some superior quality walnut trees can be found in Cornwall. In fact, the walnut trees grow well and healthy in most parts of Britain, but the problem is that plants sprouted from seeds are not always dependable as far as fruit produce is concerned. It may, however, be noted that over the years some European varieties of the walnut have been developed that can even sustain and flourish even in colder climes. Unlike the new variety of cultivable walnut trees, plants that sprout from seeds take a long time to bear fruits. Seedling walnut trees normally take six to 15 years to yield fruits, but the cultivable varieties or cultivars begin cropping with a span of just five years. However, seedling trees have deep and strong taproots that are able to withstand any kind of root disturbances. From the very beginning, walnut seedlings must be planted at their permanent positions and be left undisturbed. As the young walnut plants are tender as well as very sensitive to cold, it is essential that be provided with adequate protection during the first couple of winters. It may be noted here that the flowers as well as the young spurs of the walnut can be damaged even by the brief fall in temperature to -2�C. However, it is fortunate that usually the plants come late into leaf. Normally, the flowering of the trees depends on a number of circumstances, especially the conducive condition during the previous summer. Although, it is always advisable to grow two different varieties of cultivable walnut trees with a view to assist in and benefit from cross-pollination, an array of newly developed walnut cultivars are capable of fertility own their own. Here is a word of caution. If one desires to trim the trees, it must essentially be done either in late summer, early autumn or when the plant is completely inactive or else the plant will bleed abundantly from the gaping wounds and this may even lead to the deterioration of the tree. Interestingly, walnut plants produce a chemical that can restrict the growth of other plants in the vicinity. These chemicals ooze out from the leaves of the trees and dissolve out of the plant with the rain water and later washed down to the floor of the orchard. When the dissolved chemicals come in contact with the ground, they stop all types of undergrowth near the walnut trees. Even the roots of the walnut tree produce certain materials that are lethal for some species of vegetation. The poisonous excretions from the walnut roots especially affect apples (Malus species), white pines (certain Pinus spp.) and members of the Ericaceae, Potentilla spp. In addition, the walnut trees have a thick covering that has the propensity to diminish the growth of other types of vegetation underneath them. The walnuts can never be called the best of 'accompanying trees' and neither do they like to grow in clusters. The walnuts are very much 'individualists' and like to grow in isolation or at a distance from each other. The worst part is that the walnuts are reported to have restricted the growth of smaller plants like potatoes and tomatoes underneath them.
Walnut contains quinones, oils, tannins; nuts contain essential fatty acids, including cis-linoleic and alfa-linolenic.
The medicinal values of walnut leaves are known to man since ages and hence for thousands of years now herbal medicine practitioners have used it to heal numerous aliments. According to the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder, walnut trees reached Rome from the Middle East in the first century and since then the tree has been cultivated not only in Italy, but also in other parts of Europe. During the 17th century, famous English herbalist Nicholas Culpepper made a special past combining walnut leaf extracts, honey, onion and salt to drag out the poisons from deadly snake and spider bites. Again, during the 20th century, herbalists described the walnut leaf as one of the mildest and most effective laxatives available anywhere. While herbal medical practitioners extensively use walnut to heal various disorders, now it is even being used in homeopathy to cure liver ailments and intestinal problems. The black walnut also known as Juglans nigra is another variety of walnut that is widely used to cure athlete's foot and parasitic infections. The black walnut has many other therapeutic uses too. The bark of this species of walnut tree is useful in relieving constipation and also beneficial against fungal and parasitic contagions. Rather than killing worms, black walnut is used to drive them out of the body during the normal cleansing of the body by inciting laxatives. This variety of walnut is also used to kill warts that are unwanted growths in the body caused by viruses. When applied externally, black walnut is useful for healing eczema, herpes, psoriasis and all types of skin parasites. When consumed, black walnut is also beneficial in harmonizing blood sugar levels in the system and also to destroy toxins and fatty substances in the body. Owing to the presence of acids and alkaloids, black walnut has also depicted properties that may be useful in preventing cancer. The walnut leaf has various benefits for different health conditions. These leaves are useful for people suffering from acne, eczema and ringworm. Astringent tannins are important ingredients of walnut leaves and these tannins cross-link with the skin cells enabling them to be resistant to allergies and diseases caused by micro-organisms. It may be noted that the walnut leaves possess two anti-bacterial managers - walnut essential oil and juglone - that directly initiates steps against contagious micro-organisms. In addition, large concentration of vitamin C found in the walnut leaves also enables them to tackle infectious diseases. People suffering from excessive sweating too benefit from walnut leaves. Walnut leaves help to cleanse the sweat pores and also shrink the sweat glands resulting to reduced perspiration. Tannins found in walnut leaves cross-link with the proteins found in the cells coating the sweat glands and form an effectual obstruction to prevent excessive sweat secretion. Walnut tea may be prepared by boiling walnut leaves in water and this is used in baths, bandages as well as skin washes with a view to cleanse the skin and also to get rid of all infections. Most of the walnut herbal products are available in herb shops or can be obtained from the herb suppliers. In fact there are many walnut herb products that are prepared from the dry outer covering of the fruit, seed or nut of the walnut. These walnut hulls are blended with other herbs in tinctures and are used as intensive laxatives. Hence, it is advisable that no one should use products prepared from walnut hulls for any ailment or disorder. It is always best to use herbal products made from walnut leaves as they are not only more effective, but also do not have any side effects.