Sweeteners have always been sought, through the ages, for their pleasant taste and utility, no matter what the source. If you pause a while and think about your intake of foods on any given day you will realize that sugar has been part of every meal, from the honey in the morning tea and maple syrup on the pancakes to a snack from corn syrup for lunch and a dinner that ended with cake which contained granulated sugar. So you can see how sugar from various sources has been imbibed.
The science of sugariness does not only deal with the source of the foods that contain sugars. Chemically speaking, close to 100 sugars exist in the form of molecules.
Sucrose is the crystallized table sugar we partake of daily and it is a simple sugar. Sunlight helps to create energy in some plants like sugar beets and sugar cane. Sucrose is found in large quantities in these plants. Glucose is a simple sugar but has a key role to play in the functions of the body. Foods containing glucose include honey, fruit, flour, nuts and cereals. Fructose is the sweetest sugar and is found in fruit and honey. One sugar that is found only in milk is lactose. While processing certain foods, lactose is added to them to improve flavour. Maltose is a sugar that is made chemically by processing starch and malt. Maltose has commercial use as it is used in edibles like beer, bread and baby foods. Pectin, which is a form of fiber, is a complex sugar found in apples, some vegetables and citrus fruit.
Sugars provide the body with necessary energy. The calorie content differs in the various sugars. A teaspoon of sugar has 16 calories as compared to the 21 in honey. Sweeteners are called "empty calories" as these carbohydrates have minimal or no nutrients, vitamins or proteins. Since they appeal to the taste-buds they can be consumed in large quantities, which is disastrous for maintaining weight. Consuming heavy amounts of sugar can also cause tooth decay and so brush your teeth each time you eat sugars, particularly the sticky kinds like caramel. It is best to restrict sugar consumption for these two reasons.